All publications of Raymond Jacinto Sucgang . Quezon City , Philippines
MY ADDITION TO THE FRAGRANCE FAMILIES
Raymond J. Sucgang, R.Ch.
A perfume is “a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.” (Meriam Webster Dictionary).
The basis to describe a perfume is to categorize the different fragrance families.
The traditional categories which materialized around 1900 are as follows:
· Single Floral: Fragrances that are dominated by a scent from one particular flower; in French called a soliflore.
· Floral Bouquet: Containing the combination of several flowers in a scent.
· Ambery: A large fragrance class featuring the scents of vanilla and animal scents together with flowers and woods. Can be enhanced by camphorous oils and incense resins.
· Woody: Fragrances that are dominated by woody scents, typically of sandalwood and cedar. Patchouli, with its camphoraceous smell, is commonly found in these perfumes.
· Leather: A family of fragrances which features the scents of honey, tobacco, wood and wood tars in its middle or base notes and a scent that alludes to leather.
· Chypre: Meaning cyprus in French, this includes fragrances built on a similar accord consisting of bergamot, oakmoss, patchouli, and labdanum. This family of fragrances is named after a perfume by Francois Coty. Pronounced: sheep-ra
· Fougère: Meaning fern in French, built on a base of lavedner, coumarin, and oakmoss. Many men's fragrances belong to this family of fragrances, which is characterized by its sharp herbaceous and woody scent. (The perfumed court.com).
New categories came into being since 1945 to describe modern scents. These were brought about by new technologies in the study of natural products and organic synthesis. The modern classifications are:
· Bright Floral: combining the traditional Single Floral and Floral Bouquet categories.
· Green: a lighter and more modern interpretation of the Chypre type.
· Oceanic/Ozone: the newest category in perfume history, appearing in 1991. A very clean, modern smell leading to many of the modern androgynous perfumes.
· Citrus or Fruity: An old fragrance family that are until recently consisted mainly of "freshening" eau de colognes due to the low tenacity of citrus scents. Development of newer fragrance compounds has allowed for the creation of primarily citrus fragrances.
· Gourmand: scents with "edible" or "dessert"-like qualities. These often contain notes like vanilla and tonka bean, as well as synthetic components designed to resemble food flavours. (The perfumed court.com).
There can never be a definite grouping of perfumes since most fragrances contain flares of many families. There are rarely scents that cosist of single aromatic material. In modern perfumery additional classification however such as, Aldehydic, Spicy, Minty, Oriental, Herbaceous, Ozonic, etc.,
Aldehydes are a class of organic compound containing the –CHO group. Aldehydes have been used in modern perfumery as so many aldehydes have different smells and they have been assigned a group called the “aldehydic note.” The famous perfume Chanel No. 5 contains a mixture of aldehydes "C-11 undecylic" or "C-110" (undecanal), "C-11 undecylenic" (10-undecenal) and "C-12" (dodecanal). There are however many other aldehydic perfumes before Chanel No. 5 (www.fragrantica.com).
Spicy Perfumes are Warm, intense perfumes filled with exotic spices. Spicy perfumes and fragrances are perfume scents that have spice in the composition are made from anything that you would find in a spicthe namee rack in the kitchen like cinnamon, ginger, cardamom, pepper cloves and nutmeg are combined with oriental materials (www.perfume.com).
Minty perfumes resemble the smell of Mentha piperita. They give off a refreshing clean scent and becomes specially unique if blended with deeper notes. Carolina Herera mint best represents this group of perfumes.
“Oriental” is well-known by its warm, sensual notes like vanilla, musk, spices and amber. Oriental perfumes are best represented by Yves Saint Laurent Opium.
Herbaceous perfumes as name suggests, have the strong identity of herbs in the blend. According to Pinterest, herbaceous perfumes are “scents that are fresh, outdoorsy, aromatic and clean” (Pinterst.com)
‘Ozonic' or 'aquatic' fragrances have a watery, limpid feeling with a humble fresh sea-like notes and have a 'watery' fresh-citrusy effect. It is a combination of 'watery fruit' like (water) melon, cucumber, rhubarb... and not so strong florals. And all that 'watered down' with a lot of cheap alcohol (www.fragrantica.com).
This classification has been used by perfumers over the years in order to easily group perfumes into families. However, like real “families,” these fragrance families can also have many members. Members of a family can have a characteristic of its own that make it distinct from the other members of that family.
Inspired by the lush vegetation surrounding my private laboratory, the R.J.Sucgang Center for Research in the Natural Sciences, in Napti, Batan, Aklan, Philippines’, Dioscorea species were abundantly growing wild in a forested hill near the lab. One particular vine which caught my attention was the wild “white ube,” a variety of the customary purple ube (yam) which were so plentiful in the area. “Ube” (Dioscorea alata), are rootcrops produced by clinging vines; these yams are normally make delicious jams and ice creams which are common favorite flavors of Filipinos.
Dioscorea alata is slender creeping vine reaching a length of several meters. The leaf-stalk slightly purple at both points of attachment. Tubers are usually bright lavender in color, occasionally white. Root is tumorous, often with small axillary tubers (https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/29771#tosummaryOfInvasiveness).
The ube has a distinct aroma which is moderately strong and nice smelling. Among the fragrance families, I cannot see a classification where ube can be categorized. The unique aroma however, is so appealing and would certainly be an excellent addition to the family of fragrances. The wild ube species seem to have a stronger aroma than the native varieties.
The chemicals present in the ube are the ones that make the root crop so delectable. Twenty nine compounds made of hydrocarbons, eight alcohols, eight aldehydes, a furan, and a disulfide, in addition to hydrogen sulfide and a number of high boiling fatty acids were reported by previous studies in Dioscorea alata. Five additional components were identified by GLC-MS and by thin layer chromatography of derivatives. The major constituent of the acid-free essence was found to be 4-Phenylbutan-2-one (http://www.stuartxchange.org/Ubi).
The preparation of ube extract involved maceration of the root crop accessions, followed by a series of solvent extraction using absolute ethanol. The solvent extracts were combined and concentrated by distillation at 55 degrees Celsius, under reduced pressure. The resulting mixture was blended to floral essential oils from Sampaguita (Jasminum sambac), woody, and citrus notes, fixative, PPG, water, and benzohenone to produce a “hot” accord which is now known as “Ube Republic.”
PARABEN-FREE BODY CREAMS WITH SELF PRESERVING ACTIVES
ASELLA S . CRUZ
RAYMOND J. SUCGANG
Centro Escolar University Graduate School
This study takes on the challenge of formulating facial/body cream products without paraben and preservatives. Combinations of natural product actives which can be blended in toiletries and make good replacements for parabens and preservatives are being sought for in the study. Contamination of cosmetics during the production process was prevented by the actives in the formulation containing Anona Muricata Linn and Muntingia calabura fruit extracts and Canarium ovatum oil extract. S. Aureus counts were absent for every 0.1 gram of the cosmetic that has been added with the actives. Degradation during exposure to warmth was also prevented by the actives. The facial and body cream was also acceptable to the end- users. More than 70% of the end-users rated the product as acceptable and highly acceptable. The extracts of Anona Muricata Linn and Muntingia calabura and the oil of canarium ovatum, has been shown to work synergistically to preserve the product in the absence of a known chemical preservative.
Evaluation of Efficiency of Commercial Hand Sanitizers/Disinfectants in the Philippines to Reduce Skin Microbial Contamination
Raymond Sucgang1,2,3, Esperanza Moya2, Maricar Ching2, Gerna Manatad3, Plormelinda Olet3, Jayvee Villagracia3, Ralph Lago3
1R.J. Sucgang Center for Research in the Natural Sciences, Napti, Batan, Aklan
2Centro Escolar University, Mendiola, Manila
3MMC-14 Anluwage, Development Academy of the Philippines
Hand sanitation is very crucial in the prevention of the spread of infectious diseases. Hand sanitizers may help reduce the bioburden of microbes on the skin. Although hand sanitizers have been shown to be as effective as hand washing in reducing bacterial load, not all hand sanitizers have the same capability to kill / eradicate the growth of different microorganisms. This study evaluated the efficacy of commercially available disinfectant hand sanitizers in the reduction of the bioburden of bacterial hand contamination in twelve (12) volunteer participants. The products tested were: (1.) ethyl alcohol-based hand gel sanitizers, (2.) isopropyl alcohol-based hand gel sanitizers, (3.) water-benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizers, and (4.) 2-propanol-benzalkonium chloride disinfectants, that were all accessible in supermarkets. Samples were picked from various retail outlets. Forty-five healthy volunteers participated in the study: 12 for efficacy and 33 for organoleptic studies. The initial procedure required the evaluators to systematically wash their hands with soap and water and air drying. This was followed by contaminating the right and left palms with 5 mL each of homogenized filthy river water suspension . The left palm was rinsed with 10 mL sterile distilled water and air dried. The right palm was sanitized with 10 mL of the test disinfectant solution and air dried. Swabs were taken from the palms of the participants after the procedures. The swab obtained from the left palm served as control, while the swab taken from the right palm served as the test sample. The experiment was repeated four more times per participant, and each repetition used a different test sample until all the four types of hand sanitizers were tried out. The numbers of viable bacterial microbes present after application on each palm were used to calculate the efficacy of the hand rub. Efficiency was calculated by comparing the viable microbial load in the left palm (control) versus the microbial load in the right palm (test setup). Disinfectants with the ability to reduce the microbial load by 50% (equivalent to Log reduction below 3) were considered effective. For the Total Plate Count (TPC) determination, the conventional pour plate technique as described by ISO Method 4833 was followed. The collected swab samples were inoculated into 5 ml of nutrient broth in test tubes followed by serial dilution until 10-3 dilution of each sample. A 0.1 ml of the last dilution was poured into sterile Petri dishes. To each of this broth culture dilution, sterile nutrient agar was dispensed. The agar was allowed to solidify, after thoroughly mixing the poured solution with the agar. Total Plate Counts expressed as colony forming units per mL(cfu/ml), were determined after incubation at 30°C for 72 h. Average TPC was reported per test setup. Results of the study showed that ethyl alcohol sanitizers reduced the microbial load by 43% while the isopropyl alcohol sanitizers reduced the microbial load by 35%. The benzalkonium chloride-based solutions reduced the bacterial load more significantly. Benzalkonium chloride in water sanitizers reduced microbial load to as much as 92% while the benzalkonium chloride in 2-propanol disinfectant solution completely eliminated the microbes ( TPC=0). The antimicrobial potency of commercially available hand sanitizers were revealed in this study. The organoleptic study involved 33 trained evaluators. The participants were asked to apply one of each kind of the test sanitizers daily on their hands for ten times per day for a period of 5 days. Rating scales which included rheology, greasiness, and skin irritability of the test sanitizers were collected at the end of each week. The hand sanitizer samples were tested one at a time per week using a randomized block design program. The preference for gel sanitizers instead of the water based solutions were demonstrated in the results. Alcogels with moisturizers and which were less greasy were the most preferred hand sanitizers by the respondents.
APPLICATION OF ISOTOPES OF CARBON IN DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN PLANT-DERIVED AND SYNTHETIC WAXES USED IN SKIN CARE COSMETICS
Many cosmetics and skin care products contain waxes and esters as raw materials. Waxes and esters which are directly derived from nature are believed to have more attraction to the skin, and are the more preferred cosmetic raw materials. In this study samples of jojoba ester, carnauba, beeswax, paraffin wax and silicone wax, lanolin, ethylhexyl palmitate, behenyl dimethicone, were analysed for Carbon -14 (14C) activities and Carbon-13 abundance (δ13C) to determine botanical or synthetic origin. The tandem use of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry can be used to generate reliable data which can give the origin of the waxes and esters samples.
#Raymond Sucgang#waxes#esters#skin care#cosmetics#lanolin#jojoba#carnauba#beeswax#paraffin wax#silicone wax
Applying Nuclear Techniques in the Attenuation of Flood and Natural Disaster-Borne Contamination
The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). helped assess the changes in circulation, dynamics and quality of groundwater in Tacloban City and helped to evaluate and monitor the natural attenuation of the pollution brought about by Typhoon Haian/Yolanda. Thiry two (32) monitoring stations for groundwater were setup and used for both conventional and nuclear techniques in the characterization of the water. It was found that in the city’s groundwater, sodium chloride, and nitrate were below the Philippine Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW 2017 version) – thus, seawater did not enter the aquifer and the biological/biomass contamination are being naturally decontaminated. These potential contaminants probably decayed before they could get to the groundwater. It was also found that the isotopic composition of the water in the aquifer is close to that of today’s rainwater – which meant that the city’s water supply was not in danger of disappearing. However, the wells in the relocation site of more than 2000 people were unfit for drinking, with spikes of arsenic and other pollutants. A database for these hydrological data is now available.
Mr Wilfren Clutario, a PNRI collaborator from Tacloban was also able to conduct a study using Asian Green Mussels (Perna viridis) used as bioindicators of pollution using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the coastal ecosystems of Tacloban City
During the fieldwork in 2018, 21 locations were visited, primarily new settlements and Mactan Rock pumping stations. The sampling was conducted following three major objectives:
1. Water quality at Mactan Rock pumping stations to evaluate potential changes in comparison to 2015 (P07 and P08C); additional sampling points at the recharge area (N9C), and the Mactan Rock surface water intake (P12C)
2. Drainage water intake from shallow groundwater in creek beds: P15C, P27C, P3C (potential sites), N62 (under construction), P1C, P2C (small drainage intake at St Helena)
3. Baseline data for shallow water at the new settlements: N2A, N3A (Sofia), N1, P4C, P16C, P16C, P14C, P17C, N27, N4, N5, N6, P5C (sea water)
Groundwater in Tacloban is extracted for drinking in only one location. Mactan Rock, a private company operates two pumping stations (P08 and P09) at this location. This water is used to supply a number of new settlements by trucks that deliver water to local cisterns in the villages. Therefore, these two pumping stations are a valuable resource and are very important locally. The parameters of the water collected from the pumping stations in 2015 are not a subject of direct concern. However, the preliminary sampling from 2015 reveals potentially worrisome indicators. Water at P08 and P09 has a minor addition of saline water , which potentially could be associated with intrusion of saline water from the deeper aquifer. Further study and monitoring of the pumping stations are suggested. If the values and parameters observed in 2015 remain constant, these could be the usual characteristics of water at this location. However, if the parameters show changes over time that suggest an increase in salinity, this could potentially be associated with an intrusion of saline water, that can be potentially very serious problem for future exploration of this used aquifer. A saline water intrusion could possibly be triggered by over-pumping, and if this is the case, then limits on extracted water volumes would need to be considered. If the use of groundwater is contemplated in the future, water recharge zone protection needs to be considered, especially at the Mactan Rock pumping stations (P07 and P08) and upstream sections of the drainage water intakes at N62 (under construction) and P2C (a small drainage intake at St Helena)
The direct influence of flooding associated with Typhoon Yolanda on groundwater quality is rather a minor issue with a limited impact and extent. The potentially impacted areas are located in the center of Tacloban, which does not have a central sewage system. Therefore, groundwater quality at these locations, even prior to the typhoon, was likely low. Groundwater in Tacloban is not used for drinking, and the city is supplied by the water supply network run by a water company (Leyte Metropolitan Water District, LMWD) using a surface water reservoir located 20 km from Tacloban. This reservoir was not impacted by the typhoon. More important are indirect impacts of the typhoon on: (i) city cleanup required quick extension of a dump site at Santo Niño without proper isolation; and (ii) destruction of many houses in low income area required construction of the new settlements/villages for people relocated from Tacloban. These villages are located in the areas where the local water supply was not secured and water is delivered by trucks.
Shallow groundwater from the first level (usually <3–10m) in the Tacloban area and in the new settlements is primarily used for washing and other sanitary purposes. The local users are fully aware that the local shallow groundwater is not potable. The major concern is contamination by wastewater from leaking septic tanks and from direct discharge from households that do not have septic tanks. In some locations, elevated heavy metal concentrations have been observed. Since groundwater is not used for drinking, its low quality is a secondary issue. In the new settlements, the major problem is a lack of a constant water supply, potential sanitation problems of the water tanks used, and a need to rely on bottled water.
Not only fresh water resources were investigated; the marine environment was also covered by the study. Increased levels of nutrients in these aquatic environments cause eutrophication of coastal waters. For the purpose of monitoring coastal waters, classical or traditional approaches were used in conjunction with isotope techniques to obtain an idea about the current status or condition of that particular area. Employing stable isotope techniques as an additional monitoring method expounded environmental data by giving possible pollution sources, which may be used for pollution source management.
By using sessile, hardy invertebrates such as primary consumers represented by mussels, it became possible to spatially assess the extent of anthropological impact for selected coastal marine area. The study provided initial baseline data for the reconstruction of food webs in the coastal marine ecosystems of Tacloban City. Terrestrial inputs in the pollutant source apportionment of selected areas were proven by the study. Asian Green Mussels (Perna viridis) were used as bioindicators of pollution using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the coastal ecosystems of Tacloban City. The investigation also measured the nutrient loading of the different sites in terms of: NO3−, NO2−, NH4+, Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN); drew correlations between the measured isotope ratio values with the measured nutrient loading; and determined the spatial variability of the bivalve isotope ratios, and mapped the extents of terrestrial and typhoon borne contamination in the area with the infromation obtained from the bivalves.
#Tacloban City#Wilfren Clutario#Raymond Sucgang#Norman Mendoza#Jeff Darren Valdez#Charles Racadio#Plormelinda Olet#Ralph Lago#Preciosa Corazon Pabroa#stable isotopes#isotope hydrology#typhoon Haiyan
Development and Applications of Isotope-based Methodologies for Authenticity Testing of Major Condiments (Vinegar, Soy Sauce, and Catsup).
The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST- PNRI) conducted a study employing nuclear analytical and isotope techniques to authenticate and detect adulteration in Vinegar, catsup, fish sauce and soy sauce. Methods based on: (1.) radiocarbon assay to detect synthetic acetic acid in vinegar, (2.) stable isotope techniques to authenticate botanical origin and method of production of vinegar, and (3.) stable isotope techniques to differentiate between fermented and acid hydrolysed soy sauce were developed and optimize. Development and optimization of methods for authenticity testing of fish sauce and catsup is underway.
R & D Output:
Policy brief-- submitted to the FDA to create the Vinegar Standard of the Philippines. A copy of the proposed standard was also submitted. In the proposed standard, the isotope techniques are included as quality acceptance parameters (mandatory parameters). The PNRI study showed that the presently accepted procedure for adulteration testing (A.O.A.C procedure for Permanganate Oxidation Number, P.O.N) was not able to detect as many adulterated samples as the nuclear-based techniques. Being a more reliable technique a policy recommendation was sent to the Food and Drug Administration to supplant the P.O.N. method with the nuclear-based method developed by PNRI.
The lack of national standard prescribing accurate and reliable methods to verify authenticity, quality, and safety of vinegar, has caused it to become targets of fraudulent adulteration. Since these synthetic brands do not allow competition to the biogenic (real) vinegar brands in terms of the price, great losses would have been suffered by the real vinegar manufacturers if the testing relied only on the conventional P.O.N. method.
PNRI developed a credible methodology for authentication of vinegar using isotope-based techniques. The methods developed were based on the radioactivity of carbon (Radioacarbon assay) and stable isotope analysis. Radioacrbon assay of the vinegar available in the market revealed rampart adulteration (70% of the available brands in the major supermarkets) all over the Philippines. Stable carbon abundance analyses allowed the discrimination between cane vinegar, coconut vinegar, pineapple vinegar, etc. PNRI, however has to request concerned regulatory agencies to approve and implement a proposed Vinegar Standard of the Philippines which shall include the developed procedure as a compliance parameter.
A consultative working group (CWG), was organized from a pool of resource persons drawn from all walks of life: vinegar manufacturers, retailers, scientists, teachers, Department of Science and Technology personnel, microfinance business operators, media, representatives from the church and Moslem communities, restaurateurs, students, youth, importer of acetic acid, fermenters, consumer groups, etc.
The output of the CWG was a draft of a Standard that included the PNRI-developed 14C radioassay among the mandatory parameters for vinegar testing. A Policy recommendation and a copy of the Standard were submitted to the regulatory agencies: Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Notarized commitment letters were successfully solicited from major producers, pledging a halt to the use of glacial acetic acid in vinegar production.
#Raymond Sucgang#MMC-14-Anluwage#Vinegar#Soy sauce#Nuclear Analytical Techniques
The application of isotope and geochemical techniques to reveal contributions of submarine groundwater and septic systems discharges to algal bloom in Boracay Island
A study was conducted by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology of the Philippines sought to determine the sources of nutrients responsible for the cyanobacteria blooms during Summer months in the neritic zone of Boracay Island. The study showed the critical areas in Boracay island which were contaminated by coliform and cyanobacteria/ blue green algae mats. Stable isotope of C, H, O, N in sea water, biota and sediments were used to determine the sources of nutrients that feed the algae and coliform. The distribution of tritium was used to detect the discharges of submarine ground water and septic system water to the intertidal zone. Elemental composition of the sediments and coral was used to determine the sources and raw materials for white sand production. Point sources of infiltrating plumes were exposed by tritium and 18O anomalies in the sea water. Corals and algae that have assimilated undeclared septic system discharges by hotels and households and inorganic fertilizer from land based runoffs were exposed in the study. Intervalic spikes of lead, chromium and zinc were detected in the white sand. The results provided valuable data in the clean up measures of the island during the 6-month closure period in 2017
Contributions to nutrient loading of submarine ground water discharges (SGD), surface runoffs and sewage system discharges, during pre and post monsoon seasons in Boracay were established using six lines of evidences: tritium, Oxygen 18, Nitrogen 15, Carbon 13, elemental composition, and microbial load, in sea water, ground water, biota, flood water, and raw sewage/septic samples. The whimsical local belief on the alleged contribution of cyanobacteria/algae to white sand production has caused apathy to the eminent nutrient releases which were ascertained to fertilize the algae/cyanobacteria in the beach zone. Algae/cyanobacteria samples showed isotope compositions that were very close to those of raw sewage and sewer pipe water in terms of δ13C and δ15N. Stable isotope and geochemical data were also used to trace the fates of pollutants and monitor natural attenuation of nitrates, phosphates, pesticides, etc. Results of the study provide scientific bases for precision policy- making and management of the fragile ecosystem. Mr. Raymond Sucgang, project leader of the study said that the competitive advantage that the study gave was that more precise determination of the source and origin pollution loads was achieved compared to the other studies in Boracay. Isotope techniques are at present the best tool for providing important information about the origin of contaminants, the contribution of different sources to a multi-source plume, characterization of their complex transport (rate and mechanisms) and for evaluating the success of contaminated site remediation.
Method Validation for Usage of New Tri-Carb 3180 TR/SL Liquid Scintillation Counter as an Auxiliary Counting System for the Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities in Water .
The Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW) includes the determination of the radiological quality of drinking water to ensure that water is safe from contamination due to fallout, or suspected sources of radiological impurities such as hospitals and industries. The standards require testing for gross alpha and gross beta (excluding radon) as an initial screening technique to assess the radiological quality of water . The standard limits are; 0.1 Bq/L for gross alpha and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta. A liquid scintillation (LSA) based method that requires smaller sample quantities, less sample preparation time and operator intervention, and produces adequate minimum detection levels for local drinking water guidelines has been developed which uses Tri-Carb 3170 TR/SL and Wallac 1414 counting systems, and has been found to be adequate and sensitive for the simultaneous determination of alpha and beta counts. Detection limits of ≤0.05 Bq/L for gross alpha and ≤0.3 Bq/L for gross beta were achieved for a total of two hours counting per sample. The method was accredited under ISO/IEC 17025 by the Philippine Accreditation Office in 2009. A new liquid scintillation counting system (Tri-Carb 3180 TR/SL) has been acquired. This system has been marked AMR-LSC-03. The use of the new counter requires method validation before use, to verify that the same results, as those generated using the Tri-Carb 3170 TR/SL (AMR_LSC_02) are obtained using Tri-Carb 3180 TR/SL (AMR-LSC-03). The method developed was validated by comparing the results obtained for alpha counts using Am 241 standard and beta using Cl 36 standard. Results generated by the Tri-Carb 3180 TR/SL (AMR-LSC-03) were generally acceptable. Detection limits of ≤0.05 Bq/L for gross alpha and ≤0.3 Bq/L for gross beta were achieved using the Tri-Carb 3180 TR/SL (AMR-LSC-03) for a total of four hours counting per sample.
Formulation and Validation of a Specialized Anti-Drug Abuse Health Education Program Aimed to Instill Anticipatory Socialization in the Youth.
The paper reports the preparation and validation of an anti-drug abuse health education module aimed to enhance the basic organizational, judgemental and perfunctory skills of adolescents to make anticipatory decisions regarding use and misuse of recreational drugs and drugs of abuse. A health module on drug abuse education and prevention was prepared and validated using a pool (N=120) of Grade 6 pupils randomly selected as test respondents. The module was anchored on a continuum raging from the cognitive through the affective to the behavioural domain of health education. The validation of the module was made by using it in actual classroom courses. Pre-test and Posttest were used as the instruments of the study. Experimental group (N=60) used the module while a control group (N=60) was not given the module. The same pretest was administered as posttest to the test subjects, except that the arrangement of items in the pretest was rearranged in the posttest. The arithmetic mean of the test scores in the experimental group was statistically different (using equal variances 2-sample t-test, Stat 500 software) and higher compared to the arithmetic mean of the test scores from the control group (t= -4.5; tcrit = ± 2.34). Conclusion was made that the module was very useful and relevant to facilitate learning in classroom instructions on drug abuse prevention education for Grade 6 pupils.
Keywords: anti drug abuse, anticipatory socialization, module
Ralph Lago*1 and Raymond Sucgang2
1Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency, EDSA, Barangay Pinyahan, Diliman, Quezon City, 1100 Metro Manila, Telephone/Fax: 929-1106 / 927-2899, email: [email protected]
2Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman Quezon City
Email correspondence to: [email protected]